ZURICH - Turkey and Armenia have agreed to establish diplomatic relations.
The "Protocol on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between the Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia" was signed by Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu and his Armenian counterpart Eduard Nalbandian in Swiss city of Zurich on Saturday.
The protocol envisages mutual recognition of the existing border between the two countries.
Under the protocol, Turkey and Armenia reconfirmed their commitment, in their bilateral and international relations, to respect and ensure respect for the principles of "equality, sovereignty, non-intervention in internal affairs of other states, territorial integrity and inviolability of frontiers".
Turkey and Armenia also condemned all forms of terrorism, violence and extremism irrespective of their cause, pledging to refrain from encouraging and tolerating such acts and to cooperate in combating against them.
* TURKEY AND ARMENIA SIGN PROTOCOLS - PROTOCOL ON DEVELOPING RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY & ARMENIA SIGNED
- Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu and his Armenian counterpart Eduard Nalbandian signed Saturday a protocol on developing relations between their two countries.
The "Protocol on Developing Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia" was signed by Davutoglu and Nalbandian in Swiss city of Zurich.
The protocol aims to facilitate the development of relations between Turkey and Armenia in all fields and took significant steps within this frame.
One of the steps has to do with the opening of the Turkish-Armenian border two months after the protocol goes into effect. The two countries have decided to establish committees in various fields and at various levels. An historical sub-committee will be established with the participation of international experts.
-FULL TEXT OF PROTOCOL-
Full text of the Protocol is as follows:
The Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia,
Guided by the Protocol on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia signed on the same day,
Considering the perspectives of developing their bilateral relations, based on confidence and respect to their mutual interests,
Determining to develop and enhance their bilateral relations, in the political, economic, energy, transport, scientific, technical, cultural issues and other fields, based on common interests of both countries,
Supporting the promotion of the cooperation between the two countries in the international and regional organisations, especially within the framework of the UN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and the BSEC,
Taking into account the common purpose of both States to cooperate for enhancing regional stability and security for ensuring the democratic and sustainable development of the region,
Reiterating their commitment to the peaceful settlement of regional and international disputes and conflicts on the basis of the norms and principles of international law,
Reaffirming their readiness to actively support the actions of the international community in addressing common security threats to the region and world security and stability, such as terrorism, transnational organised crimes, illicit trafficking of drugs and arms,
1. Agree to open the common border within 2 months after the entry into force of this Protocol,
2. Agree to conduct regular political consultations between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the two countries;
implement a dialogue on the historical dimension with the aim to restore mutual confidence between the two nations, including an impartial scientific examination of the historical records and archives to define existing problems and formulate recommendations;
make the best possible use of existing transport, communications and energy infrastructure and networks between the two countries, and to undertake measures in this regard;
develop the bilateral legal framework in order to foster cooperation between the two countries;
cooperate in the fields of science and education by encouraging relations between the appropriate institutions as well as promoting the exchange of specialists and students, and act with the aim of preserving the cultural heritage of both sides and launching common cultural projects;
establish consular cooperation in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963 in order to provide necessary assistance and protection to the citizens of the two countries;
take concrete measures in order to develop trade, tourism and economic cooperation between the two countries;
engage in a dialogue and reinforce their cooperation on environmental issues.
3. Agree on the establishment of an intergovernmental bilateral commission which shall comprise separate sub-commissions for the prompt implementation of the commitments mentioned in operational paragraph 2 above in this Protocol. To prepare the working modalities of the intergovernmental commission and its sub-commissions, a working group headed by the two Ministers of Foreign Affairs shall be created 2 months after the day following the entry into force of this Protocol. Within 3 months after the entry into force of this Protocol, these modalities shall be approved at ministerial level. The intergovernmental commission shall meet for the first time immediately after the adoption of the said modalities. The sub-commissions shall start their work at the latest 1 month thereafter and they shall work continuously until the completion of their mandates.
Where appropriate, international experts shall take part in the sub-commissions.
The timetable and elements agreed by both sides for the implementation of this Protocol are mentioned in the annexed document, which is an integral part of this Protocol.
This Protocol and the Protocol on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia shall enter into force on the same day, i.e. on the first day of the first month following the exchange of instruments of ratification.
-FULL TEXT OF HISTORIC PROTOCOL-
Full text of the protocol is as follows:
"The Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia,
Desiring to establish good neighbourly relations and to develop bilateral cooperation in the political, economic, cultural and other fields for the benefit of their peoples, as envisaged in the Protocol on the development of relations signed on the same day,
Referring to their obligations under the Charter of the United Nations, the Helsinki Final Act, the Charter of Paris for a New Europe,
Reconfirming their commitment, in their bilateral and international relations, to respect and ensure respect for the principles of equality, sovereignty, non-intervention in internal affairs of other states, territorial integrity and inviolability of frontiers,
Bearing in mind the importance of the creation and maintenance of an atmosphere of trust and confidence between the two countries that will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security and stability of the whole region, as well as being determined to refrain from the threat or the use of force, to promote the peaceful settlement of disputes, and to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Confirming the mutual recognition of the existing border between the two countries as defined by the relevant treaties of international law,
Emphasizing their decision to open the common border,
Reiterating their commitment to refrain from pursuing any policy incompatible with the spirit of good neighbourly relations,
Condemning all forms of terrorism, violence and extremism irrespective of their cause, pledging to refrain from encouraging and tolerating such acts and to cooperate in combating against them,
Affirming their willingness to chart a new pattern and course for their relations on the basis of common interests, goodwill and in pursuit of peace, mutual understanding and harmony,
Agree to establish diplomatic relations as of the date of the entry into force of this Protocol in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 and to exchange Diplomatic Missions.
This Protocol and the Protocol on the Development of Bilateral Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia shall enter into force on the same day, i.e. on the first day of the first month following the exchange of instruments of ratification."
* SIGNING OF TURKEY-ARMENIA PROTOCOL IN ZURICH
A crisis erupted during signing of two protocols on the establishment of diplomatic ties and development of relations between Turkey and Armenia in Swiss city of Zurich on Saturday.
Turkish diplomatic sources said that a dispute over the final statements which the parties would make at the end of the ceremony escalated tension between the two parties.
Foreign Minister Micheline Calmy-Rey of Switzerland met Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu prior to the signing ceremony and told him that the Armenian party could object to the text of Davutoglu's speech since there were some differences in texts of the parties.
Armenian party felt uneasy about some parts of Davutoglu's speech in which he stressed that the Caucasus should become a region of peace and tranquillity and the Upper Karabakh dispute between Azerbaijan and Armenia should be resolved. Armenian party has been defending from the very beginning that normalization of Turkey-Armenia relations and the Upper Karabakh dispute were two separate issues.
Turkish party turned down Armenian party's demand about exclusion of those expressions from Davutoglu's speech, and objected to the text of Nalbandian's speech in return. Turkish party said that Nalbandian referred to historical events in his speech and demanded exclusion of such expressions. The signing ceremony came to a deadlock after both parties rejected to take a step back.
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Swiss Foreign Minister Calmy Rey played an active role and tried to persuade the parties.
When Turkish and Armenian delegations did not accept to revise texts of the speeches, Turkish party proposed to cancel the scheduled speeches altogether.
Armenian party insisted on delivering the speech, but Clinton and Calmy Rey succeeded in putting an end to the uncertainty.
In the end, the signing took place about three hours later and there were no spoken statements.
Sources said that Armenia could made a written or verbal statement in an efort to retrieve.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner who were also in Zurich to attend the signing ceremony displayed an attitude in favor of Turkey.
Meanwhile, Davutoglu called on President Abdullah Gul and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan on phone and informed them about the developments.
* SIGNING OF TURKEY-ARMENIA PROTOCOLS IN ZURICH -TURKISH PREMIER SAYS A STATEMENT WILL BE MADE ON SUNDAY
Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that they would make a detailed statement on Sunday about the protocols signed between Turkey and Armenia in Swiss city of Zurich.
Upon questions of journalists, Prime Minister Erdogan said that a detailed statement would be made after a meeting of the Central Executive Board of his ruling Justice & Development (AK) Party on Sunday.
Historical Protocols Signed by Turkey and Armenia
October 11, 2009
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