‘It is in our blood to hate the Turks. However, we hate Bulgarians and Greeks also. The Jews like Turks, but they hate Arabs. The Arabs, in their turn, are not in favour with the Turks. And the level of hatred is rising’
Although the Jewish community in
I. ARMENIAN ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE OTTOMAN PERIOD
The Ottoman experience proves that anti-Semitism is an old Armenian habit. The main reason for anti-semitism among the Ottoman Armenians was mainly religious biases. For the Christian Armenians the Jews were in great sin. It was a common belief among the Armenians that the Jews slaughter young Christian Armenians and use their blood at the Passover feast. In Amasya province for instance local Armenian priests and notables claimed that an Armenian woman had seen Jews slaughter a young Armenian boy and use his blood for religious purposes. Stanford J. Shaw describes the following events:
‘Several days of rioting and pillaging and attacks on Jews followed, with Armenian mobs devastating the Jewish quarter of the city, beating men, women and children alike. The Armenian notables convinced the local Ottoman governor to imprison several Jewish leaders, including Rabbi Yakub Avayu, who was accused of having supervised the blood letting. They were said, after undergoing severe torture, to have confessed to their crimes and were hanged. Later, however, the Armenian boy who supposedly had been murdered was found and a new Ottoman governor punished the accusers, though nothing could be done about the Jews who had suffered in the process.’
As Abraham Ben-Yakob put it, the Armenian and Greek attacks against the Armenians continued in the following years:
‘There were literally thousands of incidents in subsequent years, invariably resulting from accusations spread among Greeks and Armenians by word mouth, or published in their newspapers, often by Christian financiers and merchants who were anxious to get the Jews out of the way, resulting in isolated and mob attacks on Jews, and burning of their shops and homes.’
Apart from the religious prejudices, the Jewish community in the Empire dramatically rose in numbers and their influence over the administration and economy increased, and this development made the Christian subjects (Armenians, Greeks etc.) worried. Unfortunately this competition between the Jews and Christians resulted in a long series of attacks against the Jews by the Armenians and Greeks, who simply did not want to lose their influential position in terms of politics and economy. In these assaults many Jews were assassinated. When the Europeans increased their economic and political influence over the
Another dramatic development for the Jews was the impact of the European military victories and conquests of Ottoman territories by the European armies, because when the Christian European armies occupied the Ottoman possessions they were supporting their Christian ‘brothers’, Armenians, Greeks and Bulgarians, and punishing the Jews and Muslims alike. Consequently the Jews became the most loyal ones to the government in the 19th century and this also worsened the relations between the nationalist Armenians and the Jews. The radical Armenians perceived the Jews as the agent of the state against their ‘revolutionary’ movement. Even some Armenians would claim that some of the responsible officers for the 1915 events, which the Armenians see these events as ‘genocide’, were Jews, freemasons or supported by the Jews or freemasons. Although this kind of claims cannot be considered as serious or scholarly, they are useful to understand the degree of the Armenian anti-semitism.
The fourth negative development for the Ottoman Jews was the nationalist-separatist movements in the Arab territories, the Balkans and in
In summary, the Armenians continually attacked the Jews for the religious reasons and for personal and ethnic interests. In the words of Shaw, ‘the attacks were brutal and without mercy. Women, children, and aged Jewish men were frequently attacked, beaten and often killed’. These attacks inevitably caused a severe tension and nourished mutual hate between the Armenians and the Jews. As a result the Jews sometimes co-operated with other ethnic groups against the Armenians as Shaw puts it:
‘Jewish resentment against the continued persecution and ritual murder attacks by Greeks and Armenians led to such hatred that, for example, many Jews actively assisted the attacks of Kurds and Lazzes on the Armenian quarters of Istanbul in 1896 and 1908, showing the Kurds where Armenians lived and where many of them were hiding and joining them in carrying away the booty. The result was even greater Armenian hatred for Jews than had been the case before, leading to further persecution and attacks in subsequent years’.
In addition to the assaults against the Jewish people the Armenians and Greeks made enormous efforts to keep the Jews out of the Palace and other important official places. Furthermore they tried to prevent constructing new synagogues in
‘Greeks and Armenians agitated widely to prevent Jews from constructing new synagogues when needed in the Empire. The best example of this came with Greek and Armenian opposition to the construction of a new Jewish synagogue at Haydarpasha in 1899. Sultan Abdul Hamid II allowed the synagogue to be built, and assured its opening despite the protests by sending a contingent of soldiers from the nearby Selimiye barracks, leading the contregation to adopt the name Hemdat Israel synagogue, but also the word Hemdat was close to the name of their benefactor, Sultan Abdul Hamid.’
In conclusion, anti-Semitism was a strong tradition among the Ottoman Armenians, and as will be seen it would be revived in the modern ages.
II. THE SECOND WORLD WAR: ARMENIAN-NAZI COLLABORATION?
The historical Armenian mistrust towards the Jews continued in the 1930s and 1940s and some radical Armenians did not hesitate to support the Nazi administration. Ayhan Ozer claims that Hitler aimed to get the Armenian support in his anti-Semitic campaign. In other words both, Nazi party and the radical anti-Semitic Armenians saw each other in the same side. Apart from the ‘common feelings’ about the Jews, in foreign policy, ‘Hitler’s future invasion plans of Russia provided a golden opportunity for the Armenians to liberate what they considered to be “Historic Armenia” from the Soviet as well as the Turkish rule’. The Armenian-German alliance alarmed not only
Moreover as Christopher Walker, a pro-Armenian researcher, admits that the relations between the Nazis and the Dashnaks living in the Nazi occupied areas were very close and active. The Armenians of Bucharest in May 1935 for example attacked the local Jews.
‘There remains the incontestable fact that relations between the Nazis and the Dashnags living in the occupied areas were close and active. On 30 December 1941 an Armenian battalion was created by a decision of the Wehrmacht, known as the Armenian 812th Battalion. It was commanded by Dro, and was made of a small number of committed recruits, and a larger number of Armenians from the prisoners of war taken by the Nazis in their sweep eastwards. Early on the total number was 8,000; this number later grew to 20,000. The 812th Battalion was operational in the Crimea and the
Apart from the assaults against the Jews, the Armenians also published a German language magazine, with fascist and anti-Semitic tendencies. In these publications the radical Armenians supported the Nazi doctrines and justified the anti-Semitic Nazi policies.
Though pro-Armenian researcher Christopher J. Walker admits that the Armenians collaborated with the Nazis, some of the Armenian authors may refuse these claims. However the Armenian periodicals of that period provide abundant proof for the Nazi-Armenian collaboration. For example the Armenian-language daily Hairenik on 17 September 1936 tried to legitimate the Nazi administration:
‘…and came (to power) Adolph Hitler after Herculean struggles. He spoke to the racial heart strings of the German, opened the fountain of his national genius…’
Similarly Hairenik named the Jews as ‘poisonous elements’ in its 19 and 20 August 1936 issue:
‘Sometimes it is difficult to eradicate these poisonous elements (the Jews) when they have struck deep root like a chronic disease, and when it becomes necessary for a people (the Nazis) to eradicate them in an uncommon method these attempts are regarded as revolutionary. During a surgical operation the flow of blood is a natural thing…’
‘…Jews being the most fanatical nationalists and race-worshippers, are compelled to create an atmosphere of internationalism and world-citizenship in order to preserve their race. As the British use battleships to occupy lands, the Jews use internationalism or communism as a weapon…’
These quotations need no further comment as they speak for themselves. In this context, the next section will focus on the current Armenian scepticism towards the Jews.
III. RISE OF ANTI-SEMITISM IN
Jews in Caucasus and
: Mountain Jews Armenia
The Jews from the
After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution the Armenian nationalists declared their independence in May 1918. The relations between the Armenians and the Jews were relatively good during this period although the radicalism of the Armenian nationalists caused a short-term fear among the Jews. However, when the Red Army defeated the Dashnaks (Armenian nationalists)
a. Jewish Under the Rule of
In the Soviet Union the Jewish population in
When the armed conflicts erupted and the Armenian forces entered the Azerbaijani territories the fears and mistrust towards ‘foreigners’ and ethnically non-Armenians reached its peak in the country and some radical Armenians saw the Jewish minority as representatives of the ‘evil forces’ in country, although the Jews did not betray their country during the conflicts. As a result of the ethnic tension and economic problems the number of the Jews dramatically decreased in the 1990s. The Jewish population in
The Armenian Jewish had no problem with the state authority and showed their loyalty in many cases. Most of the members of the community come from mixed marriage. They have limited contact with any other foreign country.
Saakian: ‘Jewish Danger Against
Another example happened in November 1997. Ara Saakian, the Vice-Speaker of the Armenian National Assembly announced the danger of the ‘Jewish lobby’ and its plans over
Saakian’s speech caused a hot debate in
‘Ara Saakian even mentioned the Jewish problem. It is very painful problem, by the way. And it is so not only in
Mesropian’s 5 August 1997 article, which was published again in Golos Armenii, reflects tension between the Jews and Armenians and clearly implies the historical mistrust between the two communities:
‘It is in our blood to hate the Turks. However, we hate Bulgarians and Greeks also. The Jews like Turks, but they hate Arabs. The Arabs, in their turn, are not in favour with the Turks. And the level of hatred is rising.’
Furthermore, The Ajzm, weekly publication of the National Democratic Union, in its response to Oskanian accused the Armenian authorities. The Ajzm on 13 May 1997 published an article titled ‘They Say Jew, They Understand a Representative of the West’. In this article the unnamed author argued that the Armenian authorities mean Jews when they speak about West and perceive the Jews as identical with the concepts of the West,
From Mistrust to Anti-Semitism: ‘Armenian Book Denies Holocaust’
The most recent example of the Armenian mistrust towards the Jews shows the anti-Semitic understanding behind the Jewish sceptic groups; as the JTA reported an anti-Semitic book ‘National System’ was distributed in the early days of 2002. The book identifies Jews and Turks as the leading enemies of the Armenian nation. According to the ‘National System’ the Holocaust is a myth, which was created by the Zionists. The leader of Armenian Jewry at the 9 February gathering said, they are going to meet with Armenian President about the rising anti-Semitism in
In addition to the mistrust towards the Jewish minority inside, the scepticism against
The Armenian policy makers in general perceive that the Jewish lobby in the
b. Karabakh: “Only Armenians Are Full-Fledged Citizens”
During the Soviet Union period, the Nagorna Karabakh in
When the armed conflict erupted between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in 1988, most of the Jews had to hide from the Armenian guerrillas. Steve Swerdlow, who is a human rights monitor for the Union Councils and the US Department’s Young Leadership Fellow in the
‘A mixed Jewish-Armenian couple, Alexander and Svetlana Peisakhov, lived in Stepanakert where their children, Sergei and Stella, were known as “local prodigies”. However during four years of fighting, the children’s grandparents, Niusia and Gelta Sarkisian, kept them back from school and hid them in basement. “We would bury the dead at night because the heavy shelling during the day made it too dangerous” said Nuisia Sarkisian. “We were scared because our children were not Armenians. We did everything we could them out through
The Armenians won the war with the Russian military support and the Armenian forces occupied not only the Karabakh territories but also some other parts of
‘When the war broke out in 1988, Daniel and Svetlana Groisman were living in Shushi, now Nagorny Karabakh’s second largest town. Daniel joined the Armenian army fought from 1990 until the ceasefire in 1994. Says Svetlana, “My husband helped retake Shushi. So many fled during the war. We aren’t even Armenian but we stayed and didn’t betray Karabakh. But now people call us Yids.” After the war, the new government paid out compensation to veterans of the conflict but Daniel was denied the benefits awarded to “pure-blooded” Armenians. When the city court confiscated the Groismans’ garage in 1998 and gave it to an ethnic Armenian veteran, the family was told “Only Armenians are full-fledged citizens. You should leave for
Since 1988, the Karabakh Jews have been almost entirely isolated from the Jewish organisations in
c. Diaspora Armenian’s Jewish Scepticism
Apart from the homeland, the Armenians living in abroad shows mistrust towards the Jewish communities. In the
‘When the Armenian genocide resolution was rejected by the US, the Turkish President, Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, and Deputy Prime Minister expressed special gratitude to the White House, Pentagon, CIA, and State Department, as well as to Jewish organizations in the US, since President Clinton intervened on the issue at the request of Israel.’
Chakrian and those who share his view do not provide any proof for their claims yet the words mentioned above clearly show the existence of Armenian Jewish scepticism among the Armenians in diaspora.
IV. THE MAIN REASONS FOR ARMENIAN SCEPTICISM TOWARDS
AND JEWISH PEOPLE IN MODERN ERA ISRAEL
As will be seen the anti-Semitic and sceptic attitude towards the Jewish minority inside and
In this context it can be argued that there are seven different main reasons for the Armenian mistrust towards the Jews:
a. Historical Reasons,
b. Religious Reasons,
c. The Armenian Western Scepticism and the Armenian Isolationist Perception,
e. Israel-Turkey Friendship’s Impact on
f. Azerbaijani Oils,
a. The Historical Reasons
As discussed in the previous sections anti-Semitism is an old Armenian habit or ‘disease’ and experienced in the Ottoman period. Unfortunately the Soviet period did not help in curing this ‘disease’, contrary the Soviet’s scepticism nourished anti-semitism among the Armenians. In this period and later the Armenians have seen the foreigners including the Jews as the main source of their problems (scapegoat).
Apart from the historical mutual mistrust between the Armenians and the Jews, the traditional Turkish-Jewish friendship also affected the Armenian-Jewish relations. As a well known fact that when Jews suffered persecution in
b. Religious Reasons
As the religious reasons of Armenian-Jewish scepticism were discussed above these reasons are not detailed here.
’s Western Scepticism Armenia
One of the most important characteristics of the newly independent Armenian state is the feeling of an isolated
The dissolution of the Soviet ‘Empire’ made the Armenian independence possible, and
Furthermore, after gaining independence in 1991 the country continued to be a zone of Russian influence.
The Armenian occupation of Azerbaijani territories was not approved by the Western states as well and none of the countries recognised Nagorno-Karabakh as an Armenian territory except
Apart from the security considerations,
‘If I am elected, there will be some new developments in our relations with
His first action in office was lifting the ban on the activities of the fanatically anti-Turkish Dashnak Party, which was considered as terrorist organisation by the Turkish state. The Dashnak Party had been banned by the previous Armenian President Ter-Petrossian in 1994 on the grounds that it was engaged in terrorist activities.
These policies increased the gap between Armenian policies and the Western Block’s policies in the Caspian region including
e. Israel-Turkey Friendship’s Impact on
Apart from the mistrust towards the West and isolated Armenian foreign policy, one of the most important factors caused anti-Semitic attitudes and sceptic
In brief, while
Oil, Israel and Jewish Lobby: Israel-Turkey and Block? Azerbaijan
Both sides have always sympathised with each other and had good relations since the independence of
Apart from the Jewish lobby and oil policies,
It also should be noted that
However Turkey’s and Israel’s good relations with Georgia and Azerbaijan cause conspiracy theories in Yerevan, and the radical Armenians argue that the Jews play the main role in this ‘anti-Armenian great strategy’. As a matter of fact that
One of the formidable obstacles in Jewish-Armenian and Israel-Armenia relations is
In last two decades four significant events show
In 1982, when some Armenian researchers aimed to participate in an international conference on the subject of the Holocaust and Genocide in Tel Aviv (
The third significant development occurred at the end of September 1989 when some American senators mainly led by the Armenian and Greek lobby proposed a bill in the American Senate Judiciary Committee to commemorate the so-called ‘Armenian genocide’ indicating a memorial day in the American calendar. As a matter of fact that the
Another case showing the Israeli attitude about the Armenian allegations was witnessed in 1990. IBA cancelled screening another pro-Armenian documentary called ‘Journey to
‘The film contains propaganda and injury to part of the public, because a Holocaust happened only to part of the public, because a Holocaust happened only to the Jewish people’.
‘We Reject the Armenian Attempts’
In recent years the Israeli government’s attitude vis-à-vis Turkish and Armenians has changed and
Peres in his speech in April left no doubt about that
‘Armenian allegations are meaningless… We reject attempts to create a similarity between the Holocaust and the Armenian allegations. Nothing similar to the Holocaust occurred. It is a tragedy what the Armenians went through but not a genocide...
Apart from the Armenian claims issue Peres underscored the good relations between the Turkish and Jewish peoples, and made special note of the esteem in which
No Way to the Armenian Allegations
In addition to Shimon Peres’ statements the First Holocaust Memorial Day in
: ‘No Parallels Between Holocaust and the 1915 Events’ Israel
As the examples demonstrated that
‘Holocaust was a unique phenomenon, since it had always planned and aimed to destroy the whole nation. At this stage nothing should be compared with Holocaust.’
The Armenian reaction to Kohen’s comment was bitter: First, Dzyunik Agadzhanyian from the Armenian Foreign Ministry said Kohen’s statements were “unusual and sad”:
‘It is sad that the political leadership of the nation which went through the Holocaust continues to adhere to such position, based on unclear political reasons’.
Then, the Armenian Aryan party urged persona non grata status for the Israeli Ambassador. For the Aryan party, Kohen’s “pro-Turkish” statement was “cynical and interference in
‘Foreign Minister Vardan Oskanyan has unequivocally negatively assessed Ambassador Kohen’s statement. Earlier the Armenian Foreign Ministry also negatively assessed a similar statement by Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres. This time the Armenian foreign minister has again taken serious steps to express his dissatisfaction… It is really regrettable that Israeli diplomacy sticks to such a position, which stems from certain political considerations…’
After the statement Armenian Foreign Ministry issued a note of protest to Israel over the Ambassador’s remarks and the Ministry cancelled Oskanian’s official visit to Israel which had been planned before the Ambassador crisis as Ms. Ashjain said ‘at this moment no visit on the level of foreign affairs minister is planned to Israel, and no delegation is expected from Israel at this moment in Armenia.’ As expected
‘As Jews and Israelis we are sorry for the killings and tragedies that took place particularly in 1915-16. We understand the outbursts of the feelings of both sides (Turks and Armenians - s.l.), know that there were many victims and realize the suffering of
As anticipated this reply did not satisfy the Armenians and the Armenian press blamed Israel and accused the Israeli Foreign Ministry of ‘playing dirty political games’ In conclusion, Israel’s attitude regarding the Armenian allegation has deeply affected the relation between both states; on the one hand Armenia has insisted on its allegations and accused Turkey and Israel for their positions, on the other it has criticized Turks and Israelis for not to develop good relations with Armenia.
To conclude, the anti-Semitic attitudes among the Armenians, and the Armenian scepticism about
Copy of the Press Release Signed by the 11 American Jewish Organisations
“Eleven Jewish groups, representing the organized Jewish community in the
In particular, the organizations commended Senator Sam Brownback (R-KS), a long-time advocate of
Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act, passed in 1992, precludes the United States, among other things, from accepting Azerbaijan’s offer to allow US military overflight rights and the use of its military bases, as well as access to medical facilities and intelligence cooperation. Secretary of State Colin Powell, writing on behalf of President Bush, stated recently that Section 907 “severely constrains our ability to provide most support to the Government of Azerbaijan including assistance needed to support our operations in the ongoing war against terrorism.”
The new language will enable the President of the
In a letter to senators, the Jewish groups observed that an easing of Section 907 “advances
The governments of
The organizations supporting this development are: Agudath Israel of America; American Jewish Committee; American Jewish Congress; Anti-Defamation League; B’nai B’rith International; Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations; Hadassah – The Women’s Zionist Organization of America; Jewish Council for Public Affairs; Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs; NCSJ: Advocates on behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia; and Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America.”
Copy of the American Jewish Organizations’ Letter to the American Congress
Agudath Israel of America
American Jewish Committee
American Jewish Congress
B'nai B'rith International
Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
Jewish Council for Public Affairs
Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs
NCSJ: Advocates on behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia
Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of
As Jewish organizations representing the consensus of Jewish communities and national leadership across the
Secretary of State Colin Powell, on behalf of President Bush, wrote on October 15 to Senator Jesse Helms in support of this legislation,. According to Secretary Powell, Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act of 1992 “severely constrains our ability to provide most support to the Government of Azerbaijan including assistance needed to support our operations in the ongoing war against terrorism…This type of assistance is a critical element of the
We supported similar legislation in 1999, believing that genuine independence, peace and prosperity for the nations of the southern Caucasus and Central Asia will benefit the national interests of the
As such countries as Azerbaijan look to the West, it is incumbent upon the United States to engage them and their societies, to add credibility to their road toward democracy and promoting of human rights, and reduce any pressure from other powers – Iran in particular – that seek opportunities to expand strategic influence and instill a very different world view than our own. These states nervously watch as powerful neighbors maneuver for influence, sometimes at their expense.
Building on the rich heritage of
Our original reasons for supporting a waiver of Section 907, including the strategic imperative, have only intensified since the tragic events of September 11. We urge you to support Senator Brownback’s initiative.
 Golos Armenii, 5 August 1997.
 ‘Anti-Semitism in
 Stanford J. Shaw, The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the
 Abraham Ben-Yakob, ‘The Immigration of Iraki Jews to the
 For the examples see Shaw, The Jews..., p. 148.
 Shaw, The Jews..., p. 127.
 For the Jews in the Ottoman Empire and their relations with the state and the other millets see also: Stanford J. Shaw, The Jews...; Stanford J. Shaw, Turkey and the Holocaust, Turkey’s Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945, (London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1993); B. Braude and B. Lewis (eds.), Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982), pp. 185-207; Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, (Princeton: 1984); C. H. Dodd, Nations in the Ottoman Empire: A Case Study in Devolution, Hull Papers in Politics, No. 18, University of Hull, April 1980; Uriel Heyd, ‘The Jewish Communities of Istanbul in the Seventeenth Century’, Oriens, Vol.: VI, 1953, pp. 299-314; M. Sevilla-Sharon, Türkiye Yahudileri (Turkey Jews), (Ankara: İletişim Yayınları, 1991); Ahmet Hikmet Eroğlu, Osmanlı Devletinde Yahudiler (The Jews in the Ottoman State), (İstanbul: Alperen Yayınları, 2001); Hakan Alkan, 500 Yıllık Serüven, Belgelerle Türkiye Yahudileri I (The 500-Years Adventure, Turkey Jews I), (İstanbul: Zvi-Geyik Yayınları, 2000); Aron Rodrigue, Türkiye Yahudilerinin Batılılaşması, (The Westernisation of Turkey Jews), (İstanbul: Ayraç, 2001); Eva Groepler, İslam ve Osmanlı Dünyasında Yahudiler (Jews in the Islamic and Ottoman World), (İstanbul: Belge, 1999); Avner Levi, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nde Yahudiler (The Jews in the Republic of Turkey), (Ankara: İletişim Yayınları, 1998).
 Stanford J. Shaw, ‘Christian Anti-Semitism in the
 Shaw, The Jews..., p. 210.
 Guleryuz, ‘Turkiye Yahudileri Tarihi’ (The History of
 Ayhan Ozer, The Armenian-Nazi Collaboration in WWII, www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/arm_nazi.html
 Public Record Office, F.O. 371/30031/R5337, quoted in Ozer, The Armenian...
 Ozer, The Armenian...
 Christopher J. Walker, Armenia: The Survival of a Nation, (London: 1980); The Times, 19 July 1941, p. 5, also see Sonyel, The Great..., p. 183.
 Ataöv, Hitler.., p. 91; Salahi Sonyel, The Great War and the Tragedy of
 quoted in Ozer, The Armenian...
 Quoted in James G. Mandalian, Who Are The Dasnags, (Boston: Hairenik Press, 1944), pp. 13-14.
 Hairenik, 20 August 1936, quoted in Mandalian, Who…, pp. 13-14.
 For the medieval Jews see: Michael Nosonovsky, ‘Medieval Jewish Community in Eghegiz, Armenia’, Christian Orient, Vol. 1 (3), 1912 (translated. by www.ubalt.edu); Lev Gorodetsky, ‘Mountain Jews in Jeopardy’, The Jerusalem Post, 31 October 2001; Kevin Alan Brook, ‘The Unexpected Discovery of Vestiges of the Medieval Armenian Jews’, The Sephardic Voice, No. 45, December 2001; Daphna Lewy, ‘The Lost Jews of Armenia’, Ha’aretz, 4 February 2001; Frank Brown, ‘Stones From The River’, The Jerusalem Report, 24 September 2001, pp. 44-45; Jacob Neusner, ‘The Jews in Pagan Armenia’, Journal Of The American Oriental Society, Vol. 84, 1964, pp. 239-240.
 Gorodetsky, ‘Mountain...’
 Daphna Lewy, ‘The Lost of Jews of Armenia Traces of a Previously Unknown Jewish Community Dating Back to the Middle Ages Have Been Discovered by Chance’, Ha’aretz, English version via net: www.sephardichouse.org/armenia.html;
 ‘The Jewish Community of Armenia History and Activities’, www.iatp.am/resource/ngo/jewish/text.html.
 ‘Anti-semitism in
 At the end of the 1990s Armenian language campaign failed and some groups argued that
 ‘Antisenitism in the Former Soviet Union and the Baltic Republics’, in Antisemitism Worldwide 1997/98, Tel Aviv; ‘Armenia’, in Antisemitism in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, UCSJ Special Report, Union of Councils for Soviet Jews, via net, www.fsumonitor.com/stories/asem1az.shtml.
 Sydney Galanty, ‘2,000 Strong Jewish Community in Armenia Struggles to retain Identity’, Armenian Mirror-Spectator, 27 June 1998.
 Michael Danielian, ‘An Armenian Journalist Discusses “The Jewish Problem” in
 Mesropian, quoted in Danielian, ‘An Armenian...’.
 Golos Armenii, 5 August 1997.
 The movement’s leader is Vasgen Manukian. Manukian was the opposition candidate for president.
 Quoted in Danielian, ‘An Armenian...’.
 ‘Armenian Book Denies Holocaust’, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 18 February 2002.
 Marilyn Henry, ‘
 Henry, ‘
 For the example see Ayots Ashkar’s 23 September 2000 issue. For the English version of this Armenian newspaper see ‘Armenian Newspaper Says Jews Blackmailed the
 Not only the Armenians in
“Freeman asks: ‘… Several Arabian newspapers recently published articles, which confirm that
Lyndon H. LaRouche replies: ‘…The Israelis are part of that. They show up as parts of this operation (an operation by the
 For the rise of Armenian separatist nationalism in Karabakh and the ethnic conflicts see: Kamer Kasim, ‘The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict, Caspian Oil and Regional Powers’, in Bülent Gökay (ed.), The Politics of Caspian Oil, (New York: Palgrave, 2001), pp. 185-198; Kamer Kasim, ‘The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict From Its Inception to the Peace Process’, Armenian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, June-July-August 2001, pp. 170-185; S. E. Cornell, ‘Turkey and the Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh: A Delicate Balance’, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 34, No. 1, January 1998; Gerard Liberidian, The Karabagh File: Documents and Facts on the Region of Mountainous Karabagh, 1918-1988, (Cambridge: Zorian Institute, 1988); Michael P. Croissant, The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, Causes and Implications, (London: Praeger, 1998); Paul A. Goble, ‘Coping With the Nagorno-Karabakh Crisis’, Flatcher Forum of World Affairs, 16, 2, Summer, 1992; Tim Potier, Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia : A Legal Appraisal, (Kluwer Law International, 2000).
 Steve Swerdlow, ‘The Forgotten Jews of Karabakh’, IWPR, CRS No. 85, 14 June 2001.
 Swerdlow, ‘The Forgotten...’.
 Hagop Chakrian, ‘US Promotes
 Mikael Danielian, ‘An Armenian Journalist Discusses “The Jewish Problem” in
 For anti-Semitism and its religious roots see also: David I. Kertzer, The Popes Against The Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-semitism, (2001); Sidney G. Hall, Christian Anti-Semitism and Paul’s Theology, (2000); Judith Taylor Gold and Joseph Gold (eds.), Monsters and Madonnas: The Roots of Christian Anti-Semitism, (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1999); Rosemary Ruetether, Faith and Fratricide: The Theological Roots of Anti-semitism, (New York: Seabury Press, 1971); David M. Szonyi (ed.), The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide, (New York: KTAV for the National Jewish Research Center, 1985); Turkkaya Ataov, ‘The Jewish Holocaust and the Armenians’, in Türkkaya Ataöv (ed.), Armenians in the Late Ottoman Period, (Ankara: 2001), pp. 314-344.
 ‘When They Say Jewish They Understand The Representative of the West’ article which was published on 13 May
 Gayane Novikova, ‘
 As known Azerbaijani people are ethnically Turkish and speak Turkish language similar to the Turks in
 Sibel Yeşilmen, ‘Back to Square One in Clandestine Flirt’, Diplomacy Papers, June 1998, p. 30.
 İlnur Çevik, ‘
 Country Review Armenia 2001, (
 Caspar W. Weinberger and Peter Schweizer, ‘Russia’s Oil Grab’, The New York Times, 12 May 1997.
 Country..., p. 20.
 Yeşilmen, ‘Back...’, p.31.
 Most of the Armenians believe that the Ottoman Turks massacred 1.5 million Armenians as a state policy, and they named these events happened in 1915 as the ‘first genocide of the 20th century, while the Turks refuse all these claims. The Turkish people argue that they did not massacred the civilian Armenians. For the Turkish argument, ‘the Ottoman territories, surrounded by war, had lost its peace and order as a result of the Armenian revolts, which broke out one after other, and by famine and epidemics. The gangs struck, these attacks were retaliated, and blood was shed everywhere. Under these circumstances, compulsory immigration was decreed, resulting in the death of thousands civil Armenians, including women, men and children’ (Gürsel Göncü, ‘The Tragedy of Hundreds of Thousands’, Atlas, June 2001, p.68). The Ottoman government punished several officials who acted negligently, even some of them were sent to prison. The Government admitted that its officers and civil servants failed to implement the project properly. However none of the Government members were anti-Armenian or racist and as proved by many researchers the Government did not intend to massacre or genocide a people. As a result of the events occurred in the last years of the Ottoman Empire, thousands of Turkish were killed by the Armenian bands while the Kurdish bandit attacks and the war circumstances with the epidemic diseases caused thousands of casualties in the Armenian side. For the details see: Mim Kemal Öke, The Armenian Question, 1914-1923, (Oxford: University Printing House, 1988); Türkkaya Ataöv (ed.), The Armenians in the Late Ottoman Period, (Ankara: TTL, 2001); Salahi Sonyel, The Great War and the Tragedy of Anatolia, Turks and Armenians in the Maelstrom of Major Powers, (Ankara: TTK, 2001); McCarthy, ‘The Anatolian Armenians, 1912-
 Gayane Novikova, ‘
 Efraim Inbar, ‘Regional Implications of the Israeli–Turkish Strategic Partnership’, Meria, Vol. 5 (2), June 2001. For Israel-Turkey co-operation also see Andrew I. Killgore, ‘Consequences of the Israel-Turkey Alliance, The Israel-Iran Alliance Failed: Can Israel and Turkey Fare Any Better?’, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 2000; Raphael Israeli, The Turkish-Israeli Odd Couple’, Orbis, 2001, pp. 65-79; Hakan Yavuz, ‘Turkish-Israeli Relations Through the Lens of the Turkish Identity Debate’, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1997, pp. 22-37; Amikam Nachmani, ‘The Remarkable Turkish-Israeli Ties’, Middle East Quarterly, June 1998; Neil Lochery, ‘Israel and Turkey: Deepening Ties and Strategic Implications, 1995-
 For the Arab states’ response see: ‘Turkish-Israeli Links Criticized’, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 2 July 1997; Efraim Inbar, ‘Regional Implications of the Israeli-Turkish Strategic Partnership’, Meria Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2001; Andrew Borowiec, ‘Arab Nations Decry Turkey’s Israel Ties’, The Washington Post, 1 June 2001; Nadia E. El-Shazly, ‘Arab Anger at New Axis’, World Today, January 1999, Vol. 55, No. 1.
 Robert D. Kaplan argues that ‘a real battle has commenced’ and ‘on one side are the Turks, their fellow Azeri Turks in Azerbaijan, the Israelis and the Jordanians’ while on the other side are Armenians, Syrians, Iraqis, Kurds and Greeks: Robert D. Kaplan, ‘Redrawing the Middle East Map’, The New York Times, 21 February 1999.
 For Syria-Armenia cooperation see: ‘Syria, Armenia Sign Defense Cooperation Deal’, Reuters, 27 August 2001; ‘Armenian-Syrian Cooperation to be Expanded’, Asbarez, 24 August 2001; ‘Syria Sends Assistance to Armenia’, Asbarez, 4 October 2001; ‘Armenian-Syrian Political & Economic Relations Can Improve’, Noyan Tapan, 11 February 2002; ‘Syria’s President Ratified Syrian-Armenian Agreement’, www.armenpress.am/eng/arxiv/2001/jun/25txt.htm; ‘Armenia Cozies Up To Russia, Syria and Iran’, Weekend Passport, 11 September 1997, Vol. 4, No. 27. For Greece-Armenia co-operation see: ‘
 Patrick Goodenough, ‘
 Armenian news agency Mediamax claimed that
 Anar Veliev, ‘The Israel-Turkey-Azerbaijan Triangle: Present and Future’, Central Asia and the
 For a detailed history of Section 907 see: Araz Aslanlı, ‘ABD’de Adaletsizliğe Verilen Ara: 907 Sayılı Ek Madde’nin Uygulanmasının Durdurulması’ (A Pause to an Unjust Decision: Repeal of Section 907), Stratejik Analiz, Vol. 2, No. 21, January 2002, pp. 55-62.
 For the press release of these 11 organisations and the copy of the letter signed by them and sent to the senators see Appendix1 and 2.
 ‘Anti-Semitism in
 Jane Hunter, ‘
 For that claim see Nezevisimaya Gazeta, 4 December 2001. For its Turkish version: ‘İsrail-Türkiye-Azerbaycan’, AZG Armenian Daily, 6 December 2001.
 The principal foreign investors in
 The other main partners are:
 Novikova, ‘Armenia...’.
 RFE / RL 5-18.
 ‘Dr. Yair Auron Responds to Shimon Peres’ Statements’, Asbarez, 18 April 2001.
 Marilyn Henry, “
 Yair Auron, The Banality of Indifference, (
 Auron, The Banality.... Also see: Yoav Karni, ‘Battle of Politicos Over the Armenian Holocaust’ Ha’aretz, 27 October 1989.
 Auron, The Banality..., p. 356.
 Yoav Karni, ‘
 Leora Eren Fruncht, ‘A Tragedy Offstage No More’, The
 Kol Haeir, 22 June 1990, quoted in Auron, The Banality..., p. 359.
 For the details of these examples see: Patrick Goodnough, ‘Armenia Seeks Recognition of “Genocide”, Conservative News Service, 23 April 1999, www.conservativenews.org/; Leora Eren Fruncht, ‘A Tragedy Offstage No More’, The Jerusalem Post, 12 May 2000.
 ‘Levy Clarifies Israeli Policy On Alleged Armenian Genocide’, People’s Daily, 26 May 2000; Turkish Daily News, 25 May 2000.
 Haig Boyodjian, ‘Peres Claims Armenians Did Not Experience Genocide’, Asbarez, 10 April 2001; ‘Israeli Opposition Leader Mr/ Yossi Sarid Attends Memorial Service: He Addresses Commemorative Rally at the Armenian Convention Jaffa’, The Armenian National Committee of Jerusalem, 25 April 2001.
 Thomas Patrick Carroll, ‘Ankara’s Strategic Alignment with Tel Aviv: Implications for Turkey and the Region’, Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 2001.
 ‘Peres: Armenian Allegations are Meaningless’, Turkish Daily News, 10 April 2001; Boyodjian, ‘Peres...’
 Carroll, ‘Ankara’s…; Boyodjian, ‘Peres...’
 ‘Dr. Yair Auron responds to Shimon Peres’ Statements’, Asbarez, 18 April 2001.
 Boyodjian, ‘Peres...’.
 Independent, 22 November 2000.
 Sedat Laçiner, ‘Armenian Diaspora in Britain and the Armenian Question’, Armenian Studies, Vol. 1, No:: 3, September-October-November 2001, pp. 223-257; Ara Sarafian, Denial of the Armenian Genocide by the British Government, a lecturer delivered in London on 24 March 2001, organised by the Socialist History Society.
 ‘Rabbi in Turkey Says Jews Only at UK Holocaust Day’, Asbarez, 26 January 2001.
 ‘Israeli Ambassador Says No Parallels Between Holocaust and 1915 Genocide’, Asbarez, 8 February 2002 and National Television of Armenia, 9 February 2002 (via Groong).
 Avet Demourian, ‘Armenian Radical Party Calls For Declaring Israeli Envoy Persona Non Grata’, Associated Press, 12 February 2002.
 ‘Armenian Party Urges Persona Non Grata Status For Israeli Envoy’, Arminfo, 11 February 2002; Demourian, ‘Armenian...’.
 ‘Oskanyan Reacts Negatively To Ambassador Kohen’s Statement’, Iravunk (Armenian daily), 15 February 2002 (For English version see: Groong, 15 February 2002).
 Press Release, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia, 15 February 2002; ‘Armenia Files Complaint With Israel Over Comments On Genocide’, Ha’aretz, 17 February 2002; ‘Armenia Protests To Israel Over Envoy’s Genocide Comments’, Agence France Press, 16 February 2002.
; ‘Armenian Foreign Minister Not To Visit Israel In Near Future’, ArmenPress News Agency, 15 February 2002; ‘Foreign Ministry Sends Protests to Israel’, Asbarez, 15 February 2002.
 Press Release, The Israeli Foreign Ministry, 18 February 2002.
 Rouzan Poghosian, ‘Diplomatic Incident: Israeli Foreign Ministry Answers Armenia’a Protest Notes’, AZG Armenian Daily, 19 February 2002.
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